Standard

Objective

Indicator

Sci-ber Text page

Life Skill

I. Students will understand the nature of changes in matter.

1. Describe the chemical and physical properties of various substances.

a. Differentiate between chemical and physical properties.

One Of These Things Is Not Like The Other!

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Compares and contrasts specific abstract or concrete attributes.

b. Classify substances based on their chemical and physical properties (e.g., reacts with water, does not react with water, flammable or nonflammable, hard or soft, flexible or nonflexible, evaporates or melts at room temperature).

Sort It Out!

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Uses various reading and writing strategies to organize, interpret, analyze, and comprehend information.

c. Investigate and report on the chemical and physical properties of a particular substance.

Candle Wax Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Uses inquiry to ask questions and solve problems.

2. Observe and evaluate evidence of chemical and physical change.

a. Identify observable evidence of a physical change (e.g., change in shape, size, phase.)

Causes of Phase Change

Thinking & Reasoning: Knowledge Understands that inquiry is characterized by a common set of values that include logical thinking, precision, open-mindedness, objectivity, skepticism, replicability of results, and honest evaluation of information.

b. Identify observable evidence of a chemical change (e.g., color change, heat and/or light being given off, gas being given off, a change in odor.)

Chemical Changes Thinking & Reasoning: Knowledge Understands that inquiry is characterized by a common set of values that include logical thinking, precision, open-mindedness, objectivity, skepticism, replicability of results, and honest evaluation of information.

c. Observe and describe chemical reactions involving atmospheric oxygen (e.g., rust, fire, respiration, and photosynthesis.)

Help Me, I'm Oxidizing or Rusting!

Thinking & Reasoning: Knowledge Possess a sufficient body of knowledge to inform Thinking & Reasoning.

d. Investigate the effects of chemical change on physical properties of substances (e.g., cooking a raw egg, iron rusting, and polymerization of a resin.)

Getting Warmer

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Uses a variety of strategies and evidence to construct an argument and to defend a position.
3. Investigate and measure the effects of increasing or decreasing the amount of energy in a physical or chemical change, and relate the kind of energy added to the motion of the particles.

a. Identify the kinds of energy (e.g., heat, light, sound) given off or taken in when a substance undergoes a chemical or physical change.

Kinds of Energy

Systems Thinking: Knowledge Understands the structure and function of a particular system.

b. Relate the amount of energy added or taken away from a substance to the motion of molecules in the substance.

Moving Molecules Systems Thinking: Knowledge Understands the structure and function of a particular system.

c. Measure and graph the relationship between the states of water and changes in its temperature.

Measuring Phase Changes

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Uses various reading and writing strategies to organize, interpret, analyze, and comprehend information.

d. Cite evidence showing that heat may be given off or taken in during a chemical change (e.g. striking a match, mixing vinegar and antacid, mixing ammonium chloride and water.)

Brrrr ... It Is Cold!

Systems Thinking: SkillsArticulates the components of diverse systems.

e. Plan and conduct an experiment, and report the effect of adding or removing energy on the chemical and physical changes.

Makin' Ice Cream

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Uses a variety of strategies and evidence to construct an argument and to defend a position.

4. Identify the observable features of chemical reactions.

a. Identify the reactants and products in a given chemical change, and describe the presence of the same atoms in both the reactants and products.

Before and After

Systems Thinking: Skills Articulates the components of diverse systems.

b. Cite examples of common significant chemical reactions (i.e., photosynthesis, respiration, combustion, rusting) in daily life.

Common Reactions

Systems Thinking: SkillsArticulates the components of diverse systems.

c. Demonstrate that mass is conserved in a chemical reaction (e.g. mix two solutions that result in a color change or formation of a precipitate, weigh the solutions before and after mixing.)

Conserving Mass

Systems Thinking: Skills Modifies an existing system to adapt to changing demands.

d. Experiment with variables affecting the relative rates of chemical changes (e.g., heating, cooling, stirring, crushing, and concentration.)

My Stomach Hurts!

Systems Thinking: SkillsArticulates the components of diverse systems.

e. Research and report on how engineers have applied principles of chemistry to an application encountered in daily life (e.g., heat-resistant plastic handles on pans, rust-resistant paints on highway bridges).

You Be The Engineer!

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Uses various reading and writing strategies to organize, interpret, analyze, and comprehend information.

Science Language Students Should Know And Use

 

II. Students will understand that energy from sunlight is changed to chemical energy in plants, transfers between living organisms, and that changing the environment may alter the amount of energy provided to living organisms.

1. Compare ways that plants and animals obtain and use energy.

a. Recognize the importance of photosynthesis in using light energy as part of the chemical process that builds plant materials.

Growing Plants

Thinking & Reasoning: Knowledge Possesses a sufficient body of knowledge to inform thinking and reasoning.

b. Explain how respiration in animals is a process that converts food energy into mechanical and heat energy.

Feeding Yeast!

Systems Thinking: Knowledge Understands the structure and function of a particular system.
c. Trace the path of energy from the sun to mechanical energy in an organism (e.g., sunlight - light energy to plants by photosynthesis to sugars - stored chemical energy to respiration in muscle cell - usable chemical energy to muscle contraction- mechanical energy).

Oh Where, Oh Where Did The Energy Go?

Systems Thinking: Knowledge Understands the structure and function of a particular system.

2. Generalize the dependent relationships between organisms.

a. Categorize the relationships between organisms (i.e., producer/consumer, predator/prey, mutualism, parasitism) and provide examples of each.

Food Chain Practice!

Systems Thinking: SkillsArticulates the components of diverse systems.

b. Use models to trace the flow of energy in food chains and food webs.

The Food Web Mobile

Systems Thinking: SkillsArticulates the components of diverse systems.

c. Formulate and test a hypothesis on the effects of air, temperature, water, or light on plants. (e.g., seed germination, growth rates, seasonal adaptations).

Don't Ask Me, It's Your Experiment!

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Uses inquiry to ask questions and solve problems.

d. Research multiple ways that different scientists have investigated the same ecosystem.

The Rainforest and the Scientist

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Uses a variety of strategies and evidence to construct an argument and to defend a position.

3. Analyze human influence on the capacity of an environment to sustain living things.

a. Describe specific examples of how humans have changed the capacity of an environment to support specific life forms (e.g., people create wetlands and nesting boxes that increase the number and range of wood ducks, acid rain damages amphibian eggs and reduces population of frogs, clear cutting forests affects squirrel populations, suburban sprawl reduces mule deer winter range thus decreasing numbers of deer).

Hot or Cold

Systems Thinking: Skills Articulates the components of diverse systems.

b. Distinguish between inference and evidence in a newspaper or magazine article relating to the effect of humans on the environment.

What's in the News?

Systems Thinking: SkillsArticulates the components of diverse systems.

c. Infer the potential effects of humans on a specific food web.

Here, Let Me Fix It!

Systems Thinking: SkillsActs and evaluates own role within a system.
d. Evaluate and present arguments for and against allowing a specific species of plant or animal to become extinct, and relate the argument to the flow of energy in an ecosystem.

Extinct or Not!

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Recognizes situations in which a variety of conclusions can be drawn from the same information.

Science Language Students Should Know And Use

 

III. Students will understand the processes of rock and fossil formation.

1. Compare rocks and minerals and describe how they are related.

a. Recognize that rocks are composed of minerals.

Rocks and Minerals

Thinking & Reasoning: Knowledge Understands the process of accessing background knowledge when organizing information.

b. Observe and describe the minerals found in rocks (e.g. shape, color, luster, texture, hardness.)

What's My Story?

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Compares and contrasts specific abstracts or concrete attributes.

c. Categorize rock samples as sedimentary, metamorphic, or igneous.

Rock Types

Test Your Knowlege!

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Compares and contrasts specific abstracts or concrete attributes.

2. Describe the nature of the changes that rocks undergo over long periods of time.

a. Diagram and explain the rock cycle.

Change Is The Name Of The Game

Systems Thinking: SkillsArticulates the components of diverse systems.

b. Describe the role of energy in the processes that change rock materials over time.

A Chip Off The Old Rock!

Systems Thinking: SkillsArticulates the components of diverse systems.

c. Use a model to demonstrate how erosion changes the surface of Earth.

Weathering and Erosion

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Compares and contrasts specific abstract or concrete attributes.

d. Relate gravity to changes in Earth's surface.

Gravity An Agent Of Erosion. Systems Thinking: SkillsArticulates the components of diverse systems.

e. Identify the role of weathering of rocks in soil formation.

Weathering and Soil Formation

Thinking & Reasoning: Knowledge Possess a sufficient body of knowledge to inform thinking and reasoning.

f. Describe and model the processes of fossil formation.

You Don't Look a Day Over 2000 Years!

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Uses a variety of strategies and evidence to construct an argument and to defend a position.

3. Describe how rock and fossil evidence is used to infer Earth's history.

a. Describe how the deposition of rock materials produces layering of sedimentary rocks over time.

The Laying of Sedimentary Rocks Over Time

Thinking & Reasoning: Knowledge Possesses a sufficient body of knowledge to inform thinking and reasoning.

b. Identify the assumptions scientists make to determine relative ages of rock layers.

Relative Dating

Thinking & Reasoning: Knowledge Possesses a sufficient body of knowledge to inform thinking and reasoning.
c. Explain why some sedimentary rock layers may not always appear with youngest rock on top and older rocks below (i.e., folding, faulting, unconformity).

Move Over, I'm Coming Through!

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Uses a variety of strategies and evidence to construct an argument and to defend a position.

d. Research how fossils show evidence of the changing surface of the Earth.

Were You There?

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Uses a variety of strategies and evidence to construct an argument and to defend a position.

e. Propose why more recently deposited rock layers are more likely to contain fossils resembling existing species than older rock layers.

Hide And Seek or ... Where Am I Now?

Thinking & Reasoning: Knowledge Possesses a sufficient body of knowledge to inform thinking and reasoning.

4. Compare rapid and gradual changes to Earth's surface.

a. Describe how energy from the Earth's interior causes changes to Earth's surface (i.e., earthquakes and volcanoes.)

Rock and Roll

Thinking & Reasoning: Knowledge Possesses a sufficient body of knowledge to inform thinking and reasoning.

b. Describe how earthquakes and volcanoes transfer energy from Earth's interior to the surface (e.g., seismic waves transfer mechanical energy, flowing magma transfers heat and mechanical energy).

Transferring Energy

Thinking & Reasoning: Knowledge Possesses a sufficient body of knowledge to inform thinking and reasoning.

c. Model the process of energy build up and release in earthquakes.

Make Your Own Earthquake

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Uses a variety of strategies and evidence to construct an argument and to defend a position.

d. Investigate and report possible reasons why the best engineering or ecological practices are not always followed in making decisions about building roads, dams, and other structures.

Dams, Road Building And The Environment

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Uses various reading and writing strategies to organize, interpret, analyze, and comprehend information.

e. Model how small changes over time add up to major changes to Earth's surface.

Need A Little Change?

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Uses a variety of strategies and evidence to construct an argument and to defend a position.

Science Language Students Should Know And Use

 

IV. Students will understand the relationships among energy, force and motion.

1. Investigate the movement of energy through various materials.

a. Relate the energy of a wave to wavelength.

Wave Amplitude

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Uses various reading and writing strategies to organize, interpret, analyze, and comprehend information.

b. Compare the movement of energy (i.e., sound, light, earthquake waves, heat) through various mediums.

How Fast Does Sound Move?

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Compares and contrasts specific abstract or concrete attributes.

c. Describe the spread of energy away from an energy-producing source.

Spreading Energy

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Compares and contrasts specific abstract or concrete attributes.

d. Compare the movement of heat by conduction, convection, and radiation and provide examples of each.

Modeling Heat Movement

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Compares and contrasts specific abstract or concrete attributes.

e. Demonstrate how white light can be separated into the visible color spectrum.

Finding Color In Light!

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Compares and contrasts specific abstract or concrete attributes.

2. Examine the force exerted on objects by gravity.

a. Distinguish between mass and weight.

Weight and Mass

Thinking & Reasoning: Knowledge Possesses a sufficient body of knowledge to inform thinking and reasoning.

b. Cite examples of how Earth's gravitational force on an object depends upon the mass of the object.

Kickin' Mass!

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Compares and contrasts specific abstract or concrete attributes.

c. Describe how Earth's gravitational force on an object depends upon the distance of the object from the Earth.

Fly Ball!

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Compares and contrasts specific abstract or concrete attributes.

d. Design and build structures to support a load.

The Bridge Builder

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Uses a variety of strategies and evidence to construct an argument and to defend a position.

e. Engineer (design and build) a machine that uses gravity to accomplish a task.

Rock and Roll Mania Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Uses a variety of strategies and evidence to construct an argument and to defend a position.

3. Investigate the application of forces that act on objects, and the resulting motion.

a. Calculate the mechanical advantage created by a lever.

Levers Are Useful Tools!

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Uses various reading and writing strategies to organize, interpret , analyze, and comprehend information.

b. Engineer a device that uses levers or inclined planes to create a mechanical advantage.

Tee Time

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Uses a variety of strategies and evidence to construct an argument and to defend a position.

c. Engineer a device that uses friction to control the motion of an object.

Bull’s Eye

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Uses a variety of strategies and evidence to construct an argument and to defend a position.

d. Design, and build a complex machine capable of doing a specified task.

Complex Machines for Simple Tasks!

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Uses a variety of strategies and evidence to construct an argument and to defend a position.

e. Investigate the principles used to engineer changes in forces and motion.

Changing Force and Motion

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Uses inquiry to ask questions and solve problems.

4. Analyze various forms of energy and how living organisms sense and respond to energy.

a. Analyze the cyclic nature of potential and kinetic energy (e.g., a bouncing ball, pendulum.)

Potential and Kinetic Energy

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Compare and Contrasts specific abstract or concrete attributes.

b. Trace the conversion of energy from one form of energy to another (e.g., light to chemical to mechanical.)

The Energy Family

Thinking & Reasoning: Knowledge Possesses a sufficient body of knowledge to inform thinking and reasoning.

c. Cite examples of how organisms sense various types of energy.

Sensing Energy

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Compare and Contrasts specific abstract or concrete attributes.

d.  Investigate and report the response of various organisms to changes in energy (e.g., plant response to light, human response to motion, sound, light, insects response to changes in light intensity).

The Case of the Disappearing Chlorophyll! Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Uses inquiry to ask questions and solve problems

e. Investigate and describe how engineers have developed devices to help us sense various types of energy (e.g., seismographs, eyeglasses, telescopes, hearing aids).

Devices to Perceive Energy

Thinking & Reasoning: Skills Uses inquiry to ask questions and solve problems

Science Language Students Should Know And Use.