

Volume is a measure of the amount of space that something
fills.
Volume can be measured in the following ways:
 If an object is rectangular, the length, width, and height can be
measured directly with a metric ruler. The three numbers multiplied together
give the volume in cubic centimeters.
 For irregularly shaped solids, water displacement can be used. The
volume of a certain amount of water in a graduated cylinder or other
measuring device is first measured. The object is dropped in. The change
in water level is its volume.
 If an overflow jar is available, the jar is filled; a graduated cylinder
is placed under the spout, the object is dropped in, and the overflow
is measured.
 The volume of containers can be measured indirectly by filling them
with water, then pouring the liquid into a graduated cylinder or beaker
for measurement.
Useful hints for measuring volume:
 The smaller the graduations on the measuring device the more accurate
your measurement will be. A milliliter is the same amount of volume
as a cubic centimeter.
 The volume of air in sand can be calculated by adding 40 ml of water
to 40 ml of dry sand. The water will fill the air spaces in the sand,
and the top surface will be at about 65 ml. Since it would have been
80 ml without the air, the air must take up 15 ml of the sand. By dividing
the volume of air by the volume of dry sand, the percentage of air
in sand is found.

Question: Once you find out how to measure mass and
volume, can you determine how much air is in the sand? 
Hypothesis: Write your own idea about how
you can find out how much air is in sand. 
Materials:
 Small rock
 Marble
 Wood block
 Baby food jar or any small container
 Two graduated cylinders
 Ruler
 Sand
 One 50 mL beaker
 One 250 mL beaker


Safety concerns: Be
sure to follow all glassware safety
rules that are specified by your teacher in all general laboratory experiences.
Because graduated cylinders may break, make sure the rocks are not too
big to fit in the cylinders. Tilt the graduated cylinders at an angle and
slide the marbles or pebbles down the sides for the water displacement
method. This will reduce the amount of splash produced and reduce the chances
of the graduated cylinder breaking. Remember you should not put a stopper
into any flask unless given direct instruction by your teacher. 

Procedure:
 Use the ruler to directly measure the length, width, and height measurements
to find the volume of the wood block.
 Be sure to use centimeters (cm) so that the volume measurements
will be easy to compare with the fluid volume measurements.
 Remember that the volume of any box shape is l * w * h, or length
* width * height.
 Place the wood block on a balance to determine its mass in grams.
 Use the graduated cylinder and the water displacement method for finding
the volume of the marble:
 Place the marble on a balance to determine its mass in grams.
 It doesn't matter how much water you start with, just leave
room for it to rise.
 Record the starting volume of water.
 Drop the marble into the graduated cylinder. To reduce the amount
of splash and to avoid breaking the cylinder, tilt the cylinder
on an angle and slide the marble down the side into the water.
 Record this final volume in the data section.
 Subtract the beginning volume from the final volume. The difference
is the volume of the marble!
 Repeat the same steps above to find the volume of the small rock.
Record your data as you go.
 Use direct measurement to find the volume of the baby food jar:
 Place the empty baby food jar on a balance to determine its mass
in grams.
 Fill the jar with water.
 Place the filled baby food jar on a balance to determine the
mass of the jar and the water. Subtract these two numbers to find
the mass of the water in the jar.
 Pour the volume of water into a graduated cylinder, and record
its volume.
 If the jar can hold more water than the graduated cylinder, place
as much water as you can measure into the cylinder, record the volume,
pour out the water into the sink, and measure the rest of the water
in the jar. Add these volumes together for a final volume measurement.
 To find the volume of air in sand:
 Place an empty 50 mL graduated cylinder on a balance and record
its mass in grams.
 Measure 20 mL of sand into the graduated cylinder.
 Place the graduated cylinder with sand onto a balance and record
its mass in grams.
 Subtract these two numbers to determine the
mass of the sand.
 Measure 20 mL of water into a graduated cylinder.
 Carefully pour the sand into the water in the graduated cylinder.
Try not to get any sand stuck on the sides.
 Allow the sand to completely submerge in the water. Make sure
there are no air bubbles left.
 The total volume of the sand and water should be 80 mL, since
you added 40 mL of one into 40 mL of the other. Record the final
volume of the sand/water mixture. If there is a difference between
the final volume and 80 mL, this difference is the volume of air
in the sand.
Data:
1. Wood block:
 length__________ cm
 width__________ cm
 height__________ cm
 volume (l*w*h) = __________ cm^{3}
2. Marble (using graduated cylinder):
 final volume of water__________ mL
 beginning volume of water__________ mL
 subtract beginning from final
 volume =__________ mL
3. Rock (using graduate):
 final volume of water__________ mL
 beginning volume of water__________ mL
 subtract beginning from final
 volume =__________ mL
4. Marble (using beaker):
 final volume of water__________ mL
 beginning volume of water__________ mL
 subtract beginning from final
 volume =__________ mL
5. Baby food jar =__________ mL
6. Volume of air in the sand:
 beginning: sand + water = _____________mL
 final volume = _____________ mL
 subtract final from beginning
 difference = _____________ mL of air in the sand
Analysis:
 Which had the greater volume, the marble or the rock?
 Which had the greater volume, the wood block or the baby food jar?
 How close were the volume measurements for the marble using the graduated
cylinder and the beaker in the water displacement method? Which method
do you feel is most accurate?
 What percentage of the sand is air? Divide air space (from #5) by
amount of sand (40 mL) and multiply by 100%.
 What is the relationship between mL and cubic centimeters?
 Which volume measurement method would you use to find the volume of:
 a glass of milk?
 a book?
 a pencil?
 What are two things that you learned from this lab?
 Which method was the easiest to use?
 Which was the hardest method to use?




Review science safety rules here.
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